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A. Gather Information 

B. Understand the Problem 

C. Select the Focal Problem 

D. Develop a Strategy 

E. Prepare a Log Frame 

F. Write the Proposal 


A. Kenyan Case Study 

B. Developing a Strategy 

C. Developing a Log Frame 

Additional information available on the 'Web Module': 

■ The Ten Seeds Technique 

■ A Problem Tree 

■ A Sample Log Frame 

■ Reading Material 

■ Related links 

■ Assessment Requirements 

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Wmymimmmmmt Pr@f ram 

Development Programs are designed to address needs. To understand a 
particular need we first need to gather information about it. 

All needs are complex. To understand the many inter-related aspects of ttie 
problem we need to sort and organise this information. 

Amongst this complexity we select a focal problem that we have both the means 
to address and that will have an impact on the need. 

Certain strategies \n\\\ be more effective than others in addressing this focal 
problem. These strategies will include lower level activities that contribute to higher 
level objectives. 

The logical framework ouWmes the program strategy, how program results will be 
measured and verified and the assumptions upon which their achievement 

A program proposal \nc\u6es the log frame, a narrative outline of the program's 
background, rationale and implementation, a budget and other relevant sections. 

WorkshQP Paellitar H&tmm 

This workshop is designed to take between 3 hours and 1 day. 
Ensure the following are available at the workshop: 

i- A multi-media projector and screen 

i- A white board or flip chart with pens 

i- A laptop for each group or this Manual for each participant 

i- The "Kenya Case Study" (see Appendix A) for each participant 

L A pad of Sticky Notes for each group 

^ A large sheet of Flip Chart paper for each group 

i- Desks and chairs arranged for small groups (4 to 6 per group) 

i- Your laptop 

i- Several copies of the design files on CDs or Memory stick to pass around 

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It is critical in any design process is to understand the context \n which people live 
and the complexity of problems that they face before attempting to design an 
appropriate response. This analysis will be based on pr/mary information 
(community interviews etc) and secondary information (census', previous research 
etc) and will begin to clarify contextual issues, needs, and likely focal segments. 

Collection approaches include: 

Transect walks: The assessment team walks through the community to observe 
the overall situation. Information may be collected on: population, village facilities, 
main livelihoods, markets and geographic features. 

The "10 Seed" Technique: This is particularly useful in gathering qualitative 
information regarding the way people within the community see themselves in 
relation to others. 

Focus Groups: Focus groups may be formed based on information from the 
transect walk and 10 seeds. Focus groups provide an opportunity to explore 
specific issues in detail and are flexible in time and content. 

Anthropometric Data Collection: This tool provides quantitative data on health 
and nutrition status among women and children in the village. Data is collected on 
a representative sample of children and women and may include child's age, 
weight, height etc. 

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The Ten Seeds Rapid Assessment Technique 

■i- Collect 1 stones of roughly similar size 

i- If the group don't all come from the same town or city, they must pretend 
that they do, decide where. 

■i- The stones represent all the people in your 'village'. As a group, divide the 
stones into four categories: The number of really rich people, really poor 
people, fairly poor people and the middle class. There may be discussion as to 
how to define these groups. Record your results. 

■i- Next, assume the 10 stones represent the wealth of the really rich. Divide 
the stones by asking "Where does their money come from?" Write down 
categories as they are raised and group the stones. Record your results. 
Repeat this question with the really poor etc. 

■i- Next, for each category, ask "Where do these people spend their money?" 

i- This discussion may raise other issues to use the 10 stones to analyse or 
to take further in a focus group. 

■i- What have the group learned from this experience? 

i- The ten seeds technique is a rapid qualitative assessment approach. It is 
surprisingly accurate and, used well, can produce valuable insights into 
community life to base program interventions on. 

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R Understand thm Pr@bi@m 

Causal analysis helps organize the many concerns identified in a community into a 
logical hierarchy of cause-and-effect relationships that forms the central logic of 
our project design. Each "cause" is in turn the "effect" portion of another cause- 
and-effect relationship. The result is a sequence or stream of factors leading to the 
focal problem and a sequence leading from the focal problem. This is called a 
'Problem Tree'. 

We use causal thinking every day, for example: Who brushed their teeth today? 
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Causal Analysis: The Problem Tree 

We will be using the case study from Turkana district in Kenya (see Appendix A) 
for this exercise. Ensure everyone has a copy. 

i- Read through the "Kenyan Case Study" and underline all of the issues. 




i- Write each problem on a separate sticky note e.g. 

i- Next, take one sticky note and ask: "What are the causes of this 
problem?" (Get these from your pile and place them below the problem), then 
ask: "What are the effects of this problem?" (Place them above the problem) 










Lack if 





Lack of 

"4- Connect the sticky notes with arrows. 

ir Continue until all of the issues link up and form a single "Problem Tree" 

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p Seleiet the F@€ai Pr@blem 

The focal problem will be the centroid in the analysis. All issues below this in the 
problem tree are direct or indirect causes of the focal problem; all issues above the 
problem are direct or indirect effects. 

Selecting which problem(s) to focus on will be based on: 

*t The organization's comparative advantage and capacity. 

*t The significance or scope of the problem. 

*t The priorities of the donor and the opportunity for resources. 

-4- The degree to which resolution of the problem will result in a fundamental 

change in people's lives. 

A concept to keep in mind is the Pareto Principle , which states that only a few 
causal streams that lead to a problem are responsible for the bulk of the problem. 
You often hear statements like "90% of repeated violent crimes are caused by 5% 
of the population," or "80% of the yield reduction is caused by two major plant 

A good causal analysis reveals all of the major cause-effect linkages that 
contribute to the focal problem. As all causes cannot be addressed in one project, 
we need to ensure that the causes we choose, (the leverage points) contribute 
significantly to the resolution of the problem. 


Selecting a Focal Problem 

i- Review your Problem Tree and select a problem to focus your 
development program on. (To make your job easier, select a problem near the 
top of the tree with many contributing causes!) 

i- On Appendix B, rewrite your focal problem (in the dark rectangle), add 
three contributing problems that your program will focus on and a few causes 
for each of these problems. 

1- Write in your focal problem's effect. 

At this stage it is worth putting aside the case study and considering whether 
there any likely causes of your focal problem that were not mentioned in the case 
study? As a group, brainstorm if these are probable causes, and if so, fill them 
into your diagram (These would be checked in an actual design process). 

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n P^v@i@P a strategy 

In this step we move from being problem focussed to solution focussed. 
Each of the causes and effects linked to the focal problem need a corresponding 
positive element in the program strategy, for example "Inadequate sanitary 
latrines" \N\\\ transform to "Construct Sanitary Latrines". 

In any proposal, the donor will want to see not just activities, but what impact these 
activities will result in. Activities (digging latrines) will result in outputs (adequate 
sanitary latrines) will result in outcomes (people using the latrines properly) will 
result in impacts (reduction in morbidity rates). They will also want to know what 
inputs will be required to perform the activities. 

Most donors break these strategies into five layers, for example: 

*t Impacts are the durable improvements in human well-being. 

*t Outcomes are the changes in participants' behaviour, skills or status. 

^ Outputs include the goods and services delivered. 

^ Activities are the processes, tools, events, technology and actions. 

«L /npute include human, financial, organizational, and community resources. 


Transforming Negatives to Positives 

Using Appendix B, convert each of your negative statements in the left hand 
"tree" to positive statements in the right hand "tree". Begin at the focal problem, 
for example: 

i- "High infant mortality rates" to "Reduced infant mortality rates" 

i- "Lack of Ag. Knowledge" to "Adequate Agricultural Knowledge" 

The bottom level of the "tree" should be able to be converted easily into actual 
activities, for example: 

4- "Lack of Ag. training available" to "Run Agricultural training" 

J- "Inadequate water supply" to "Construct water supply facilities" 

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E Prepare m Lomfrmmm 

Logframes are an 'aid to thinking' and liave many applications, sucli as to ensure 
tliat activities will contribute to the program objectives, to appraise the project's 
design and to implement, monitor and evaluate the project's progress. 


IVIeans of Verification 







While each donor has slightly differing formats, they are in essence the same, for 
example USAID's: 

i- Indicators, are objectively verifiable statements that measure progress 

towards meeting the objectives. 

^ Means of verification, specify the source of information, how it will be 

collected, who is responsible etc. 

i- Assumptions, are conditions which could affect the project, but over which 

the manager has no control. 

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The Logical Framework 

Turn to Appendix C: Developing a Log Frame 

Considering the definitions for Impact, Outcome, Output and Activity above and 
the information from Appendix B, fill in the left hand column of Appendix C 

For /ncf/cators consider how to measure each of the statements in the left hand 
column, for example: 

i- "Farmer Training" could be measured by "# of farmers attend training" 

i- "Reduced childhood morbidity rates" could be measured by "% reduction 
in < 5 morbidity rates" etc. 

For Means of Verification consider how the indicators will be measured e.g. 

i- "# of latrines constructed" would be taken from the Engineers Report 

i- "Reduced stunting" would be taken from Hospital Record 

For Assumptions co'r\s\6ex what influences may prevent you achieving your 
targets that are outside your control, for example: 

i- Increasing instability due to a breakdown in the peace process 

yL Excessive (worse than one in 50 year) drought 

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m Write the Pr@B@sal 

Each funding agency will have a specific format for program proposals. 
A typical example might include: 

1 . Data Sheet 

4* Name of agency, project, location and contact information 

4- Total project cost and duration 

4- Summary of strategy and problem addressed 

2. Introduction 

4 What are the key problems that the project aims to solve? 

4- What is the rationale behind the solution proposed and how is this applied? 

3. Background 

4- What are the economic / social conditions that made the project necessary? 

■4- Who are the project beneficiaries? Briefly describe them. 

4 Description of your organization, similar projects you have implemented etc. 

4. Implementation 

4- Based on the Log Frame, outline implementation of the interventions. 
'A- How will you monitor and evaluate the program? 
4- What are the key risks? Are they likely? 

5. Appendices (the Log Frame, budget and other supporting documents) 

Writing the Proposal 

If the donor has not provided you with a format to use, use the format provided in 
your notes (You will need to be fairly creative, as much of the information required 
has not been included in the case study.) For a small ($20,000) to medium 
($100,000) program the following is a rough guide: 

i- Data Sheet (1 page) 

i- Introduction (1 page) 

i- Background (1 to 2 pages) 

i- Interventions (3 to 5 pages) 

i- Appendices (Budget, Logframe etc) 

The Log Frame forms the heart of your proposal. Look over the activities you have 
proposed and the logic you have used to arrive at these activities to prepare the 
narrative sections of the proposal. 

Prepare a budget using the following line items: Salaries, Training, l\/laterials and 
Supplies, Capital Items, Travel and Occupancy. Break the budget down by year if it 
is a multi year program. 

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Appendix Jk Kenyan Case Study 

Causes of food insecurity in a country such as Kenya are complex, and inherently 
interrelated. Major factors that can be attributed to the persistence of poverty in the 
country include, poor health, frequent drought, arid soils and limited knowledge of 
improved agronomic practices by rural farmers. Although poverty eradication has been 
the main objective of Kenya's development policy since independence in 1963, 
widespread poverty still exists throughout the country. It has been noted that poor 
economic performance combined with lack of access to adequate social services are root 
causes of poverty (Roger, 1995)\ High illiteracy rates are also a major contributing factor 
to the question of poverty in general, and more recently, as further analysis has been 
done, poor governance has increasingly been identified as a key factor in aggravating and 
perpetuating the poverty of rural communities. 

In addition, degradation of environmental and natural resources, high prevalence of crop 
and animal pests and limited knowledge of sound agronomic practices all contribute to the 
chronic food problem in the country. Availability of adequate quantities of food is also a 
problem, due to the growing demand for food relative to supply. About 80 percent of the 
country's total land area of 57 million hectares is arid, and in effect only 20 percent of the 
total land area supports the country's growing food crop requirements. 

The poor performance in the sector of agriculture can also be linked to other factors 
limiting the ability of households to become sustainably food secure. Inadequate health 
services in Kenya, particularly in Lokubae Division, Turkana District, continue to impact 
the quality of life for residents. As of October 1999, moderate malnutrition rates in 
Turkana District among children under the age of five reached 21 .46%^ (WFH). The poor 
nutrition status of communities indicates that there are factors that hamper proper 
utilization of food resources, even when food is accessible within the district. Many 
communities lack even the most basic key to good health - safe, accessible water, and 
morbidity is often linked to limited access to safe drinking water. 

Residents in Lokubae and many other parts of Turkana District depend primarily on 
seasonal streams, springs and shallow wells for their drinking water. Frequent and 
prolonged drought tends to lower the water table and the poor location of many of the 
shallow wells often results in reduced access to safe drinking water. In an increasing 
search for water, especially during the dry season, not only do residents walk long 
distances, but they also share scarce water resources with livestock - a practice that 
greatly contributes to contamination of limited water points. Sanitation facilities are also 
extremely limited. Poor sanitation has a significant impact on the health of communities, 
as residents often use bushes for defecation - ultimately resulting in faecal contamination 
of water sources and a prevalence of disease, such as dysentery and cholera. 

Other factors include increased armed conflict with neighboring tribes, and little GOK 
investment in infrastructure and social services. 

^ Roger, ... 1995. ... 

^ International Committee of Drougtit and Food Security, (GOK). Kenya Situation Analysis and 

Needs Assessment Report, October 1999 

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Appendix B: Developing a Strategy 

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The "Problem" The "'Strategy 

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Appendix C: Preparing a Log Frame 

Measurable Indicators 

Means of Verification 

Important Assumptions 


Output 1 

Activity 1 .1 

Activity 1 .2 

Activity 1 .3 

Output 2 

Activity 2.1 

Activity 2.2 

Activity 2.3 

Output 3 

Activity 3.1 

Activity 3.2 

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